This article was originally published here
Cardiol Young. Sep 27, 2021: 1-6. doi: 10.1017 / S1047951121003887. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect. Patients with coronary artery disease have a higher morbidity and mortality rate and are at greater risk of contracting infectious diseases. The risk could even be higher if complex coronary artery disease occurs and coronary artery disease is associated with additional co-morbidities. Therefore, vaccinations in these children are essential.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Individuals were recruited from the outpatient center of the Department of Congenital Heart Defects and Pediatric Cardiology of the German Heart Center Munich between February 2016 and February 2017. Included were children between 23 months and 17 years old and diagnosed by CHD. The vaccination certificate was intended to assess vaccination status.
RESULTS: A total of 657 children with coronary artery disease were included and analyzed. Regarding primary vaccination, only 34% (n = 221) of children reached full vaccination status within the authorized catch-up period. Of these primary vaccination rates, hepatitis B, meningococcal, chickenpox and pneumococcal vaccinations were found to have the lowest coverage, all below 80%. The vaccination rate was partly influenced by the number of surgeries performed previously, but not by the diagnosis of specific genetic diseases. At school entry age, the vaccination rate in children with coronary artery disease was also lower than in the comparable healthy population.
Conclusion: The vaccination coverage rate in children with coronary artery disease is lower than that of comparable healthy children, although this is a vulnerable group of patients. Further training of parents and caregivers of children with coronary heart disease regarding vaccination is still needed.