Dengue fever: Symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, prevention

The Aedes mosquito causes dengue fever. If you are bitten by a mosquito carrying the dengue virus, you will get dengue fever. The infection should not be overlooked. If dengue progresses to a severe stage, it can be life threatening. This article will discuss the symptoms, treatments, home remedies, and preventions for dengue fever.

What is dengue fever?

Dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted by the Aedes mosquito. The disease is found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and it is estimated that there are over 400 million cases of dengue every year. The virus that causes dengue fever is called DENV and there are four serotypes of DENV. It is possible to be infected four times by the virus.

However, there is no specific treatment for dengue, but it can be prevented by protecting yourself against mosquito bites. The Aedes mosquito typically lays its eggs in standing water, so eliminating sources of standing water can help reduce the risk of dengue transmission.

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Dengue fever signs

There are certain symptoms to look for to know whether or not it is dengue fever. Such as feeling cold, loss of appetite, body aches, headache, eye pain, lower back pain, muscle pain, joint pain, rash, fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, and redness of the skin and eyes.

During the first hours of dengue infection, pain is felt in the legs and joints. The fever can rise very quickly to 104 degrees Fahrenheit. Heart rate and blood pressure are low during this time. A red or pink rash may appear on the face, which then disappears.

High fever and other dengue fever symptoms last for 2-4 days, then body temperature drops rapidly with sweating. Body temperature remains normal for about a day before the second rapid rise in fever and feels healthy. Later, an itchy rash appears all over the body except the face. The palms of the hands and soles of the feet may be bright red and swollen.

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Serious Dengue Symptoms

Sometimes dengue infection is very serious or fatal. This is called severe dengue fever. Symptoms of severe dengue appear 3 to 7 days after the first symptoms of dengue. People who have already been infected with dengue are at a higher risk of developing severe dengue.

The main symptoms of severe dengue fever are severe abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, vomiting blood, bleeding gums, bleeding under the skin, difficulty or rapid breathing, feeling cold or sweaty, pulse rapid and drowsiness/loss of consciousness. If you see symptoms of severe dengue, you should go to the hospital emergency department right away.

How to Diagnose Dengue

If you see symptoms of dengue or have a high fever, you should see a licensed physician for further investigation. Not all fevers are dengue fever. Self-diagnosis of dengue leaves other common causes of fever, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infection, typhoid, flu, etc., undiagnosed.

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The patient’s signs, symptoms, and physical examination data can help diagnose the disease. However, results may vary from the first day to the next 10 days of dengue fever in different tests. So the self-test can be confusing. Therefore, it would be wise to let the doctor figure it out first.

Doctors initially diagnose dengue fever by NS1, CBC, IgG, and IgM. A maximum of Tk. 500 may be charged for the NS1 Antigen dengue test. A maximum of Tk. 400 can be taken for the CBC test (RBC + WBC + Hematocrit). Apart from this, IgG and IgM tests should be done within 500 Takas.

Dengue Fever Treatment and Home Remedies

There is no specific treatment for dengue fever, but there are ways to ease the symptoms. Painkillers, rest, and fluids can help reduce fever and pain. In severe cases, hospitalization may be required in order to receive intravenous fluids and close monitoring.

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At the initial stage, rest and drink plenty of water or liquid food. If the body is hydrated, headaches and muscle aches will be reduced. Drink coconut water, lemon juice, fruit juice and saline solution at home.

Paracetamol can be taken to lower fever. However, consultation with a doctor is necessary if the patient has heart, liver and kidney complications.

Aspirin, clofenac, and ibuprofen-like drugs should not be taken for body aches in dengue fever. Taking such drugs during dengue can cause bleeding.

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What not to do

Platelets are no longer a key contributor to dengue fever. There is no need to worry about the number of platelets. If the platelet count drops below 10,000 or there is bleeding from any part of the body, platelets or fresh blood may be given as needed. However, such situations are very rare.

Many people say that eating papaya leaf juice etc. increases platelets. In fact, these have no role. Once the fever subsides, the platelets begin to grow on their own once the crisis period has passed. When the fever ends, blood pressure may drop or there may be bleeding from the gums, nose, or rectum. If so, an intravenous saline solution may be needed. In these cases, hospitalization is necessary.

When to go to the hospital

In the case of dengue fever, the type of treatment to follow, at home or in the hospital, depends on its type or category. There are three types or categories of dengue fever: “A”, “B” and “C”. Patients in the first category are normal. They only have a fever. Most dengue patients fall into the “A” category. They do not require hospitalization. Resting at home is enough.

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Patients with dengue grade “B” may require hospitalization. Certain symptoms, such as abdominal pain, vomiting, diabetes, obesity, pregnancy, congenital problems, and kidney or liver problems, are recommended for hospitalization.

Dengue “C” is the worst. It can damage the liver, kidneys and brain. In some cases, an intensive care unit or intensive care unit may be needed.

So, you must follow the doctor’s instructions.

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Dengue season in Bangladesh

Generally, dengue fever outbreak occurs from July to October in Bangladesh as Aedes mosquito spreads during this period. But you have to be careful throughout the year like some years; Dengue started in June.

Preventive measures against dengue fever

The Aedes mosquito usually lays its eggs in clear water. So make sure that the water does not stay for more than three to five days. This water can accumulate anywhere. Aedes mosquitoes breed in water collected on the roof of the house or in the flower box of the balcony, in various places of the building under construction, tires lying on the side of the road, or in other containers.

So, check for standing water anywhere around the house. Also use mosquito nets and spray in the house. Also, use mosquito repellent when you go out or stay home.

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Last words

In Bangladesh, the number of dengue fever deaths is increasing every year. Especially in towns and villages, many inhabitants are affected by dengue fever. Some preventative measures for Dengue fever can limit the spread of the disease.

However, not all fevers are dengue fever. So make sure you know the sign and symptoms of dengue fever to determine if you have it or not. You may also be affected by viral fever. So far we have discussed the diagnostic process of dengue fever. Proper consultations with doctors are essential to avoid serious medical conditions. If appropriate treatment for dengue fever is provided that the patient can be cured.